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# 1.4.1 Pointers and the Address Operator

Pointers are variables that contain the memory address for another variable. A pointer is defined like a normal variable, but with an asterisk before the variable name. The type-specifier determines what kind of variable the pointer points to but does not affect the actual pointer.

The address operator causes the memory address for a variable to be returned. It is written with an ampersand sign before the variable name.

When using a pointer, referencing just the pointer such as:

```int *my_pointer; int barny; my_pointer=&barny;```

Causes my_pointer to contain the address of barny. Now the pointer can be use indirection to reference the variable it points to. Indirection is done by prefixing an asterisk to the pointer variable.

`*my_pointer=3;`

This causes the value of barny to be 3. Note that the value of `my_pointer` is unchanged.

Pointers offer an additional method for addressing an array. The following array:

`int my_array;`

Can be addressed normally such as:

`my_array=3;`

The same can be accomplished with:

`*(my_array+2)=3;`

Note that `my_array` is a pointer constant. Its value cannot be modified such as:

`my_array++;` This is illegal.

However, if a pointer variable is created such as:

`int *some_pointer=my_array;`

Then modifying the pointer will correctly increment the pointer so as to point to the next element in the array.

`*(some_pointer+1)=3;`

This will cause the value of `my_array` to be 3. On a system where an `int` takes up two bytes, adding 1 to `some_pointer` did not actually increase it by 1, but by 2 so that it pointed to the next element in the array.

Functions can also be represented with a pointer. A function pointer is defined in the same way as a function prototype, but the function name is replaced by the pointer name prefixed with an asterisk and encapsulated with parenthesis. Such as:

```int (*fptr)(int, char); fptr=some_function;```

To call this function:

`(*ftpr)(3,'A');`

This is equivalent to:

`some_function(3,'A');`

A structure or union can have a pointer to represent it. Such as:

```struct some_structure homer; struct some_structure *homer_pointer; homer_pointer=&homer;```

This defines homer_pointer to point to the structure homer. Now, when you use the pointer to reference something in the structure, the record selector now becomes `->` instead of a period.

`homer_pointer->an_element=5;`

This is the same as:

`homer.an_element=5;`

The void pointer can represent an unknown pointer type.

`void *joe;`

This is a pointer to an undetermined type.

# 1.4.2 Typecasting

Typecasting allows a variable to act like a variable of another type. The method of typecasting is done by prefixing the variable type enclosed by parenthesis before the variable name. The actual variable is not modified.

Example:

`float index=3; int loop=(int)index;`

This causes index to be typecasted to act like an `int`.

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